Le 2 juillet, la Conférence internationale de Bruxelles aboutit à un Traité qui condamne la traite et le trafic des esclaves africains et provoque le démarrage de la campagne antiesclavagiste en Afrique. 1865. Le Prince Léopold entre au Sénat, dont il est membre de droit. Busque, Cécile, 1922 - 2001, épouse de Félicien Lapierre Busque, Emma, d. 1879 - 1964, épouse de Octave Ferland Busque, Gérard, 1932 - 1999, époux de Claudette Isabel Busque, Germaine, 1916 - 1999, épouse de Léopold Veilleux Busque, Hermance, 1918 - 2010, fille de Joseph Léopold II est surnommé le \"Roi-bâtisseur\" car il a transformé des villes comme Bruxelles ou Ostende. Omissions? No one will ever know the precise figures, but, from all these causes, demographers estimate that between 1880 and 1920 the population of the Congo may have been slashed by up to 50 percent, from perhaps 20 million people at the beginning of that period to an estimated 10 million at the end. Léopold est fou amoureux, destiné à devenir prince consort de Grande-Bretagne. Although he played a significant role in the development of the modern Belgian state, he was also responsible for widespread atrocities committed under his rule against his colonial subjects. By the end of his life, Leopold was unpopular with his people, but, ironically, that had much less to do with his actions in Africa than with his conduct of his personal life. L'ancienne première dame du Sénégal Colette Senghor, épouse de l'ancien président et chantre de la négritude Léopold Sédar Senghor, est décédée à l'âge de 93 ans à Verson (Calvados), a annoncé la municipalité normande. Le 9 avril, naissance à Bruxelles de Léopold, Louis, Philippe, Marie, Victor, fils de Léopold Ier et de Louise-Marie. Several years later he hired the explorer Henry Morton Stanley to be his man in Africa. Léopold est d'abord destiné à l'état ecclésiastique, et on pense que ce sont justement les études théologiques auxquelles on le contraignit qui l'influencèrent défavorablement envers l'Église. Leopold II. Ils eurent quatre enfants : Louise-Marie (1858-1924), Léopold (1859-1869), Stéphanie (1864-1945), Clémentine (1872-1955). En 1815, il acquiert la nationalité anglaise et épouse l’année suivante la princesse héritière Charlotte. The king then embarked on an ultimately successful effort to make a vast fortune from his new possession. In 1870 more than 80 percent of Africa south of the Sahara was under the rule of indigenous chiefs or kings. Leopold II. Le 17 décembre, Léopold prête le serment constitutionnel.

Arolsen Klebeband 01 307 1.jpg 505 × 707; 374 KB. To prove that he had not wasted bullets—or, worse yet, saved them for use in a mutiny—for each bullet expended, a Congolese soldier of the Force Publique had to present to his white officer the severed hand of a rebel killed. Il deviendra le 1e roi des Belges. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Born the heir to Belgium’s throne in 1835, he spent his days doing all of the things a European prince would be expected to do before ascending to the throne of a minor state: learning to ride and shoot, taking part in state ceremonies, getting appointed to the army, marrying an Austrian princess, and so on. Although Leopold II established Belgium as a colonial power in Africa, he is best known for the widespread atrocities that were carried out under his rule, as a result of which as many as 10 million people died in the Congo Free State. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. For some years ivory was a principal source of the great wealth that Leopold and his associates drew from the new colony. Dezember 1909 auf Schloss Laeken, Brüssel; eigentlich Leopold Ludwig Philipp Maria Viktor, französisch Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor, niederländisch Leopold Lodewijk Filips Maria Victor) aus dem Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha war bis 1865 Herzog von Brabant[1] und Prinz von Belgien und folgte seinem Vater Leopold I. auf den Thron des Königreichs Belgien. He became duke of Brabant in 1846 and served in the Belgian army. Furthermore, as in any society where men and women are separated, traumatized, or in flight as refugees, the birth rate dropped precipitously. For five years Stanley traveled up and down the immense waterways of the Congo River basin, setting up trading posts, building roads, and persuading local chiefs—almost all of them illiterate—to sign treaties with Leopold. 1876 Detachments of his 19,000-man private army, the Force Publique, would march into a village and hold the women hostage, forcing the men to scatter into the rainforest and gather a monthly quota of wild rubber. Le 12 décembre, le Roi réunit au Palais de Bruxelles une conférence internationale de savants géographes et d'explorateurs, axée sur la découverte du centre de l'Afrique. Leopold II, French in full Léopold-Louis-Philippe-Marie-Victor, Dutch in full Leopold Lodewijk Filips Maria Victor, (born April 9, 1835, Brussels, Belgium—died December 17, 1909, Laeken), king of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909. Nothing about Leopold II’s youth suggested a future mass murderer. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. En février 1934, il succède à son père qui vient de mourir accidentellement au cours d'une escalade. As the price of rubber soared, the quotas increased, and as vines near a village were drained dry, men desperate to free their wives and daughters would have to walk days or weeks to find new vines to tap. Throughout the tropics, people rushed to sow rubber trees, but those plants could take many years to reach maturity, and in the meantime there was money to be made wherever rubber grew wild. April 1835 in Brüssel; 17. Moreover, he had a well-known penchant for teenaged girls, and, when he was age 65, he began a liaison with a teenaged former prostitute who bore him two additional children. Mary Lillian Henriette Lucie Joséphine Gislaine Baels. Il guide les premiers pas de sa nièce Victoria, quand elle monte sur le trône d'Angleterre en 1837, et se félicite de ce qu'elle épouse son cousin Albert de Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha, le fils de son frère aîné. Après la guerre il est envoyé en Californie pour y parachever ses études. Colette Senghor, l’épouse de feu Leopold Sédar Senghor est décédée ce lundi 18 novembre dans sa demeure de Verson en Normandie. Le futur roi Léopold II naît à Bruxelles le 9 avril 1835. Le 14 décembre, le Roi signe la loi sur le service militaire obligatoire. En août 1935, sa femme décède dans un accident d'automobile (Léopold qui était au volant du véhicule est lui-même blessé). Although the domestic affairs of his reign were dominated by a growing conflict between the Liberal and Catholic parties over suffrage and education issues, Leopold concentrated on developing the country’s defenses. While Leopold II did much to establish Belgium as an economically and militarily stable power in Europe, he is chiefly remembered for the nightmarish practices that were carried out in his name. He is remembered in Belgium for some of what he built with his Congo wealth, such as the monumental Arcade du Cinquantenaire in Brussels, and for his advocacy of strong fortifications in the eastern part of the country, which slowed the advance of German troops in 1914 at the beginning of World War I. He was the architect of one of history's greatest, if lesser known, crimes against humanity. Devenu roi en 1951, Baudouin (à gauche) aurait entretenu une liaison avec sa belle-mère, la princesse Lilian (à droite), épouse de Léopold III (au centre). The couple's first son, Louis Philippe, died in infancy prior to Leopold II's birth. The Belgian Monarchy website requires javascript to work properly. Historical map of the Belgian Congo (1908–60). Baskets of severed hands thus resulted from expeditions against rebels. Their family life was dysfunctional, to say the least. Envoyer par mail. Colette Senghor, épouse de Léopold Sédar Senghor est décédée en Normandie. Le roi Léopold 1er de Belgique met ses relations familiales au service du royaume et de la paix. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Le 22 août, il épouse Marie-Henriette de Habsbourg-Lorraine, Archiduchesse d'Autriche. Leopold II implemented a forced-labour system in the Congo that was quickly copied by other European colonial powers. Colette Senghor, née Hubert est décédée dans sa maison de Verson en Normandie. Le 7 juin, lendemain du débarquement des troupes alliées sur le Continent, le Roi et sa famille sont déportés vers l'Allemagne et … Leopold II (Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria from 1790 to 1792, and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. Because his only son had predeceased him, Leopold’s nephew Albert I succeeded to the throne. Léopold II crée, avec le concours de l’explorateur britannique Stanley, le Comité d'Etudes du Haut-Congo, transformé en 1879 en Association internationale du Congo. En 1926, il épouse la princesse Astrid de Suède, nièce du roi Gustave V de Suède. Décédée le 19 septembre 1902 à Spa. Because the system’s effects in the Congo could so easily be blamed on one man, who could safely be attacked because he did not represent a great power, an international outcry focused on Leopold. Plus de 450 nécrologies ajoutées chaque jour. Léopold I er, connu auparavant sous le nom de Léopold Georges Chrétien Frédéric de Saxe-Cobourg-Saalfeld, né le 16 décembre 1790 à Cobourg (en Saxe-Cobourg-Saalfeld) et mort le 10 décembre 1865 au château de Laeken (en Belgique), est un prince allemand de la maison de Saxe-Cobourg et Gotha devenu le premier roi des Belges en 1831 et le fondateur de la dynastie régnant sur la Belgique. Léopold épouse Madame Lilian Baels, qui portera le titre de Princesse de Rethy. Le Roi institue une commission internationale d'enquête, qui reconnaît les mérites de l'action royale au Congo, tout en relevant des abus et des lacunes. The treaties, some of which appear to have been subsequently doctored to Leopold’s liking, were then put to use by the Belgian monarch. afp, le 19/11/2019 à 10:57; Lecture en 2 min. Then, as they would be into the 21st century, most of the royal families of Europe were related. Pour Léopold, c’était l’espoir de pouvoir participer aux destinées de l’empire le plus puissant du monde. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Sa deuxième épouse. Leopold, however, made the Belgian government pay him for his prized possession. En 1832, il lui faut convoler pour assurer le futur de sa dynastie et obtenir des appuis à l'étranger. Le 22 août, il épouse Marie-Henriette de Habsbourg-Lorraine, Archiduchesse d'Autriche. Le Prince Léopold entre au Sénat, dont il est membre de droit. Leopold II was born in 1835 to King Leopold I and Louise-Marie of Orleans. Belgijski, kralj Belgijcev, * 9. april 1835, Bruselj, Belgija, † 17. december 1909, Laeken, Bruselj, Belgija.. Bil je drugi monarh Kraljevine Belgije po pridobitvi neodvisnosti leta 1830 in prvi, ki se je rodil na ozemlju države. Tens, possibly hundreds, of thousands of Congolese fled their villages to avoid being impressed as forced labourers, and they sought refuge deep in the forest, where there was little food and shelter. In 1853 he married Marie-Henriette, daughter of the Austrian archduke Joseph, palatine of Hungary, and became king of the Belgians on his father’s death in December 1865. He called it État Indépendant du Congo, the Congo Free State. Initially he was most interested in ivory, a material that was greatly valued in the days before plastics because it could be carved into a great variety of shapes—statuettes, jewelry, piano keys, false teeth, and more. The royal coffers would become a central focus of Leopold’s life, and he once grumbled to German Emperor William II while watching a parade in Berlin, “There is really nothing left for us kings except money!” Leopold soon decided that the best way to acquire wealth would be by establishing an African colony, at a time when the great European “Scramble for Africa” was under way. In his novella Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad, who spent six months in the Congo in 1890 as a steamboat officer, gives a searing picture of the brutal and voracious European quest for Congo ivory. Charlotte meurt à 21 ans. Millions of Congolese then found themselves suffering near-famine, which made them vulnerable to diseases they otherwise might have survived. Après la guerre il est envoyé en Californie pour y parachever ses études. Leopold passe du temps avec Cora. Fût l'épouse du roi Léopold III , le 11 septembre 1941. Née le 23 août 1836 à Pest en Autriche-Hongrie. One particularly notorious practice grew out of the suppression of those rebellions. ("Remonter le Temps") Alors que Leopold est sur le point de devenir le Roi, il se balade dans le jardin du palais royal et vient en aide à Cora, une simple paysanne venant d'être rejetée par le jardinier.Plus tard, tous deux se baladent en forêt et Leopold s'avoue embarrassé de ne pas savoir allumer de feu pour la réchauffer.